European White Birch

Betula pendula

Betula pendula (European White Birch) - full view

Full view

Betula pendula (European White Birch) - leaves

Foliage detail

Betula pendula (European White Birch) - bark

Bark detail

  • Size:

    Height: 30-40'; Spread: 15-20'

  • Growth:

    Fast

  • Character:

    Deciduous; upright, weeping form.

  • Foliage:

    Dark green, oval leaves with 9-11 paired veins, 1-3" long. Orange-yellow in the fall.

  • Flower:

    Tassel-like flowers in early spring. Male flowers are 1-1.25" long and hang in clusters of 1-3; Female flowers 1/2-3/4" at branch spurs near male flowers.

  • Fruit:

    Fruiting catkins are 1-1.25" long, green maturing to brown.

  • Bark:

    Creamy-white, peeling, with contrasting black lines and cracks.

  • Watering:

    In general, 15-20 gallons per week for the first 2 years; 15-20 gallons twice a month for the 3rd year; as needed after 3 years (varies by soil, sun, and wind conditions).

  • Tree Care:

    Moderate. Important to prune to shape when young; does not recover well from large cuts when mature.

  • Tolerance:

    Tolerates shade, any soil, and medium winds.

  • Special Considerations:

    Surface roots may spread in search of water. Susceptible to aphids, caterpillars, and birch borers. Does not do well in coastal conditions.

  • Notable Traits:

    Native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. Cannot tolerate drought. Attracts birds foraging for food.